Here is a list of all mountain ranges in Pakistan, including their highest peaks, important passes, glaciers, rivers, and valleys, along with a map of all famous mountains.
Mountains are the natural elevations in earth’s surface that rise 900 to 1000 meters or more above the sea level, with 50% of surface consisting of steep slopes. There are 14 mountains in the world with height more than 8000m. Five of these are in Pakistan;
- K2 = 8611 metres (Karakorum)
- Nanga Parbat = 8126 meters (Himalayas)
- K5/ Gasherbrum-I/ Hidden Peak = 8080 metres (Karakorum)
- Broad Peak = 8050 metres (Karakorum)
- K4/ Gasherbrum-II = 8035 metres (Karakorum)
Mountains of Pakistan
- Type: Fold Mountains
- Formed by: Contraction of Tethys sea bed rock strata
- Divided into Northern, Western Mountains, and Ranges of Potohar and Balochistan Plateau
Pakistan Northern Mountains comprise of 3 main ranges (folded and faulted), which are:
- Karakoram mountain range
- Himalayas mountain range
- Hindu Kush mountain range
Karakoram Mountain Range
Location of Karakoram Mountain Range
- North of River Indus
- Starts from Wakhan corridor
- Stretches in east west direction, from River Hunza to Shyok
Highest Peaks of Karakoram Mountain Range
- K2 (Godwin-Austen or Chigori) = 8611m (K2 is the highest peak of Pakistan and the second highest peak in world, located in Skardu district of Baltistan division)
- Gasherbrum-I = 8080m
- Broad Peak = 8050m
- Gasherbrum-II = 8035m
- Gasherbrum-III = 7952m
- Gasherbrum-IV (K3) = 7932m
- Average height of the Karakoram mountain range is 6000m
Important Passes of Karakoram Mountain Range
- Karakoram pass – thehighest mountain pass in the world
- Khunjerab pass – provides link to China through Karakoram Highway (Silk route)
- Mintaka Pass
- Kilik Pass
- Mustagh Pass
- Shimshal Pass
Important Valleys of Karakoram Mountain Range
Important Rivers of Karakoram Mountain Range
Important Glaciers of Karakoram Mountain Range
- Siachin – Length of Siachin glacier is 76 km. It’s the largest/ longest and highest glacier of Pakistan and second largest/ longest of the world.
- Baifo – 67 km long in Shigar, GB
- Baltoro – 63km long in Shigar, GB
- Batura – 57 km long in Hunza, GB
- Hispar – 49 km long in GB
- There are a total of 7253 glaciers in Pakistan.
Himalayas Mountain Range
Location of Himalayas Mountain Range
- The Himalayas are in the southern part of the Karakoram mountain
- They are in east-west direction, and passes through India, Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar
Highest Peak of Himalayas Mountain Range in Pakistan
- Nanga Parbat mountain = 8126m
- Raakhiot Peak = 7070m
- GanaaloPeak = 6606m
- Laila Peak = 5971m
- Sarwaali Peak = 6096m
- Aerage height of Himalayas Mountain Range is about 4000m
Himalaya Mountain is further divided into 4 sub-parallel ranges, which are as follows:
1. Deosai Range
- It is located between the Valley of Kashmir and Gilgit Baltistan.
- It lies to the south east of the Indus river gorge.
- Average height is 4000m.
- The road leading to Skardu from Gurez passes through the Deosai Plains.
- Burzil Pass, situated in this area connects the Valley of Kashmir with Gilgit Baltistan.
2. Central Himalayas
- Central Himalayas (also known as Greater Himalayas) are located in south of River Indus which separates it from Karakoram Range.
- Highest Range Mount Everest (8848m) lie on boundary of Nepal and Kashmir.
- They mostly lie in Kashmir with an average height of more than 4600 meters.
- Due to great altitude, some glaciers as Rupal (18 kms) are found here.
Valleys & Gorges
- Kaghan is the important valley of the area.
- Some deepest valleys and gorges are also located in these ranges such as Dasu-Patan i.e. 6500 m deep.
- Nanga Parbat (8126 m) is the highest peak of the Himalayas in Pakistan.
- Nanga Parbat (Deo Mir or Killer Mountain)
- 8126m in Himalayan Range
- 9th in world, 2nd in Pak
- Diamer district of GB
Important Rivers & Lakes
- River Indus is the main source of drainage for this range.
- Lake Saif-ul-Maluk and Satpara are the important lakes of the area.
- Babusar Pass connects (Kaghan valley to Chilas)
- Another important pass is Noori Pass which connects Kaghan Valley with Kashmir.
3. Lesser Himalayas
- South of Central Himalayas, also known as Pir Panjal
- These ranges spread over Northern Rawalpindi, Abbottabad and Mansehra district.
- Hill stations like Murree, Nathia and Ghora gallies lie in these ranges.
- Their altitude varies from 1800 to 4500 meters.
- These are southern most ranges of Himalayas.
- Their average height is about 600 to1200 meters.
- The ranges cover the hills of Rawalpindi.
- Also form Margalla Hills
Hindu Kush Mountain Range
- They are located to the west of Karakoram and Himalayas mountains in North West of Pakistan.
- These ranges occupy the Chitral district.
- Their main part lie in Afghanistan which is a birthplace of many earthquakes.
- Their average height is about 5000 meters.
- These ranges guard the north-western borders of Pakistan.
- Barren mountains, steep slopes and fast flowing rivers are typical features of the area.
- Trich Mir (7690 m)
- Noshaq (7484 m)
- SakizJarab (30 kms)
- Trich Mir (22 kms)
- Barogil Pass (links Pakistsn to Afghanistan through Wakhan strip)
- Shandur Pass connects (Chitral to Ghizer District of Gilgit-Baltisan)
- Lawari Pass connects (Dir to Chitral valley)
Hindu Raj Mountain Range
- The Hindu Raj mountain range is between the mountain ranges of Hindu Kush &
- Koyo Zom is its highest peak, with an altitude of 6,872 m.
- Ghamubar Zom and Buni Zom are its other notable peaks.
Kohistan, Swat and Dir Mountain Ranges
- They are located to the south of the Hindu Kush Mountains.
- They are sub-parallel ranges running from north to south.
- These mountains are separated by rivers, the Kohistan Mountains lie between the Indus and Swat rivers, the Swat Mountains between the Swat and Panjkora rivers, the Dir Mountains between the Panjkora and Kunar rivers.
- In north they rise to 5000 to 6000 meters and southward they descent as low as 200 meters in altitude.
- Peaks are covered by snow.
These mountains border the western territory of the country and are lower in altitude than the northern mountains. Western mountains can be divided into the following ranges:
- Koh-e-Safed (Spin Ghar in Afghanistan)
- Waziristan Hills
Koh-e-Safed (Spin Ghar in Afghanistan)
- They are located to the south of river Kabul and north of river Kurram
- They have an east-west trend.
- They rise up to 4700 meters.
- They are mostly snow covered and therefore called white mountains.
- Rugged topography, steep slopes and severe winters
- Tora Bora caves
- Sikaram is the highest peak which is 4760 meters high.
- Khyber Pass also lies in these ranges and connects Pakistan to Afghanistan.
- Important valleys are Peshawar and Kohat, which are irrigated by canals from Warsak Dam on River Kabul.
- These hills are located between the Kurram and Gomal rivers.
- Their height is up to 3500 meters.
- These hills are rich in minerals.
- Tochi, Gomal and Kurram are the important rivers that join river Indus and are known as western tributaries.
- Tochi and Gomal are important passes of the area.
- Bannu is the important valley.
- The Kurram Tangidam on the River Kurramand Gomal Zam dam on Gomal River are the main source of irrigation.
- They are located towards the west of river Indus in the South of Waziristan hills.
- They run for a distance of 480 kms. and merge into Marri-Bugti hills in their south.
- Their average height is 1500 meters.
- These ranges are composed of Limestone, Sandstone and Shale rocks.
- The highest peak of the area is Takhte-Suleiman (3383 meters).
- Bolan is the important pass of the area that links Quetta and Sibi.
- They are located to the south of Bolan Pass.
- Make boundary of Sindh and Balochistan.
- Balochistan Plateau is in their west and Sindh province in their east.
- They merge into low hill ranges of Sindh.
- Highest peak of this range is Zardek Peak in Balochistan at 2260m
- Kutto-jo-Qabar in Sindh is 2194m
- Gorakh Hills in Sindh near Dadu
- Average height of this range is 1219m.
- Gorakh Hill is a famous hill station and tourist destination in this range perched at an altitude of about 1981m
Potohar Plateau Ranges
There’s just one notable range in Potohar, called Salt Range.
- Salt range is located to the south of Potwar Plateau.
- The Indus River breaks through the Range at Kalabagh.
- Salt Range covers most of the Jhelum, and parts of Khushab, Chakwal and Mianwali districts.
- Its average height is about 750 – 900 meters.
- Range extends about 300 kilo-meters in east west direction.
- Salt Range is rich in a number of minerals e.g. Rock salt, Limestone and Gypsum.
- It has become famous because of salt mines of Khewra, Kalabagh, Warcha.
- The highest peak of the area is Sakesar (1527 m).
- Khewra, Makrachi, Jaranwala and Jamsukh are small streams found in Salt Ranges.
Balochistan Plateau Ranges
Toba Kakar Ranges
- It is located in extreme north of Baluchistan plateau.
- Rugged with no vegetation cover.
- Rise above 3000 meters.
- They have Khojak pass which link Pakistan with Afghanistan.
- Kalat plateau lies in south of Quetta, and is criss-crossed by Koh-i-Maran, Harboi, Brahui and Central Brahui ranges.
- It rises to 1600 to 2000 meters.
- Lies to the south of Kalat Plateau, it’s a triangular region.
- Many active faults are present in this rea. Therefore it is subject to frequent earthquakes.
- Khuzdar Knot rises to 1800 to 2400 meters a.s.l.
- They are located at Pak-Afghan border in Chaghi district with altitude of 2000 meters a.s.l.
- Nuclear explosions site
- Lies to the south of Chaghi hills in Chaghi district
- They also have altitude of 2000 meters a.s.l.
- It’s a Curved shaped range in between Central Makran and Raskoh.
Central Makran Range
- It lies in South west region of Baluchistan in South of Siahan Range with altitude of 1000 to 1200 meters a.s.l.
- Most of these rivers are seasonal in nature.
Makran Coastal range
- It is Southernmostrange along the coastal plain of Baluchistan with an altitude of just 200 to 600 meters a.s.l.
- Many small rivers from this range flow towards south to Arabian sea.
Map of Mountain Ranges (Highest Peaks & Famous Mountains) in Pakistan
Sources Used: Britannica, AIOU Geography
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