Thursday, June 1, 2023

Plains of Pakistan: Upper & Lower Indus Plain

Here’s a brief account on plains of Pakistan (upper and lower Indus plain as well as Indus Delta) including their location, features, map, doabs, and deserts.

A large portion of Pakistan’s land consists of flat land surface, called Plains. Plains of Pakistan are also called Indus Plains as they’re formed due to Indus river.

History of Indus Plains

  • Indus Plains were formed by deposition of alluvium by Indus river (and tributaries) around 10,000 to two million years ago.

River Indus Path

  • River Indus (2900k long) starts from Lake Manasarovar near mount Kailash in Tibet. It then passes through Karakoram & Himalayas in IOK and GB. It then through KPK, and makes border between KPK and Punjab. After that, it flows through Punjab and Sindh, and falls into Arabian Sea at Thatha.

Tributaries of Indus River

  • Eastern: Rivers Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, and Sutlej
  • Western: Rivers Kabul, Kurram, Tochi and Gomal

Indus plain divided into: Upper Indus & Lower Indus Plains

Upper Indus Plain (Punjab)

Location of Upper Indus Plain

  • Jhelum to Mithankot
  • Whole Punjab

Features of Upper Indus Plain

  • Flat and undulating plain, with slope towards south-west.
  • Indus river and its Eastern (major) tributaries are

Where Rivers Meet?

  • River Jhelum joins Chenab at Atharhazairi
  • River Ravi joins Chenab at Ahmed pur Sial
  • Sutlej River joins Chenab at Uch and forms the Panjnad River
  • River Panjnad joins Indus River at Mithankot

Doabs of Upper Indus Plains

  • Sindh Sagar Doab (Indus and Jhelum rivers)
  • Chaj Doab (Chenab and Jhelum rivers)
  • Rachna Doab (Ravi and Chenab rivers)
  • Bari Doab (Sutlej and Ravi rivers)

Deserts of Upper Indus Plains

  • Cholistan/ Rohi desert
  • Thal desert

Lower Indus Plain (Sindh)

Location of Lower Indus Plain

  • Mithankot to Thatta
  • Whole Sindh Province


  • Fat and undulating plain, with a slope towards south.
  • River Indus width is about 1.6 kilometers here, and it is in its lower course.
  • River Indus flows alone in Lower Plain (so there are no Doabs here) and enters into Arabian Sea in south of Thatta.

Deserts of Upper Indus Plains

  • Nara and Tharparkar desert

Indus Delta

Indus Delta is a triangular region formed by deposition of sediments by river Indus at its mouth, when it approaches Arabian Sea and its speed gets reduced due to a low gradient.

Only two rivers make delta in Pakistan (River Indus & River Hub). Indus Delta is the seventh largest/ biggest delta of the world. Its area is about 780 square km.

Map of Plains of Pakistan: Upper & Lower Indus Plain & Delta
Map of Plains of Pakistan: Upper & Lower Indus Plain


Britannica, AIOU Geography

Read More

List of Famous Doabs of Pakistan

Deserts of Pakistan: Learn Name, Location, Map & More

Mountain Ranges of Pakistan: List & Map of All Famous Mountains

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