Thursday, June 1, 2023

Timeline II: History of Pakistan From 1857 to 1947

Here’s a detailed timeline of complete history of Pakistan (subcontinent) from 1857 AD to 1947 AD , including summary/ notes of all major events.

Timeline: History of Pakistan From 1857 to 1947


  • War of Independence started on 10th May, 1857 at Meerut
  • During the War of Independence the Governor General of India was Lord Canning. He had assumed the charge of his office in 1856.
  • Lord Canning was the first Viceroy and the last Governor General of India sub-continent.


  • Bahadur Shah Zafar deposed by the British and exiled to Burma
    • 17 Mughal emperors ruled over subcontinent in total
  • Gov of India Act 2nd August 1858
  • Queen’s proclamation issued on 1st Nov 1858 – Queen Victoria took over India’s administration from BEIC
  • Counsel of secretary of state started in 1858 & dissolved in 1935


  • Anjuman-e-Islamia Punjab was founded for the renaissance of Islam
  • Sir Syed set up Gulshan school at Muradabad


  • Sir Syed set up Victoria school at Ghazipur. He also started a translation society, later called scientific society


  • Urdu-Hindi controversy started in Banaras, UP
  • Prarthana Samaj is founded by Dr. Atmaram Pandurang in 1867 with an aim to make people believe in one God and worship only one God.


  • Moulana Shoukat Ali: born 1872, died 28th November 1938, buried Jamia Masjid Delhi (M Ali Johar’s elder brother)


  • Gilgit Agency was set up in 1873


  • Sir Syed set up MAO High School at Aligarh. It was upgraded to college in 1877 and to university in 1920.
  • Arya Samaj (Noble society) was established on 7th April 1875 by Swami Dayanand Saraswati. He also began Shudhi movement for the conversion of Muslims and Cow Protection Society in 1882.


  • Quaid was born on 25th December 1876. Jinnah was born in Wazir Mension Karachi. He was a Khoja by origin. His mother tongue was Gujrati. He went to London and got a law degree at 18 from Lincoln Inn.
  • Indian Association (forerunner of Congress) founded in Calcuta in 1876 by Babu Surender Nath Benerjea.


  • Lord Lytton laid the foundation stone of the Mohammadan Anglo Oriental College on January 8, 1877. Sir Ziauddin Ahmed was the first Indian principle of MAO college, who later on become the most famous and longest serving Vice Chancellor of Aligarh Muslim University.
  • Allama Iqbal born on 9th Nov 1877. Allama Iqbal qualified as PhD scholar from Munich University, Germany


  • Sir Syed became member of Legislature Assembly in 1878


  • First census by Lord Rippon


  • University of the Punjab, established in 1882 in Lahore. It’s Pakistan’s oldest university.


  • Anjuman-i-Hamayat-Islam by Khalifa Hamid-ud-Din


  • All India Congress was founded by Allan Octavian Hume (George Yale was the first president of Congress)
  • Sindh Madrassat-ul-Islam by Hassan Ali Afandi (inaugration by Lord Duffern). Moumin-i-Majmai-Mohammadi” journal was started from Sindh Madrasa-tul-Islam.


  • Muhammadan Educational Conference was established in 1886 by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan


  • In December 1887 a Bombay Muslim Badruddin Tyebji presided the 3rd session of the Indian National Congress.


  • Indian Councils Act was passed.


  • Durand Line


  • Nadvat ul Ulema started in Lucknow


  • Partition of the Bengal took place on 16th Oct 1905 – East Bengal and Assam formed (Lord Curzin), cancelled on 12th December 1911 (Lord Hoarding)
  • Lord Minto came to India as viceroy
  • The “Rashmi Roomal” Movement of 1905 was initiated by Maulana Mahmood Hassan.


  • All India Muslim League established on 30th Dec 1906 by Nawab Saleem Ullah Khan at Dhaka.
  • Nawab Waqr ul Mulk delivered the Presidential address in which the Muslim League was established
  • Sir Muhammad Shafi coined the name of All India Muslim League
  • The first central office of Muslim League was established at Aligarh.
  • Muslim League – 4 stage-struggle
    • Equitable share in politics
    • Constitutional safeguards
    • Autonomy in Muslim-majority areas
    • Independent state (divide and quit)
  • Simla Deputation comprising 35 Muslim leaders led by Sir Aga Khan III met Viceroy Lord Minto. Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulak prepared the points.
  • Quaid-e-Azam became the member of Legislative Council from Bombay in 1906.


  • First session of AIML at Karachi presided by Adam je pir bhai.
  • AIML Punjab branch founded by M Shafi.
  • AIML Poona branch founded by Rafeeh Ahmed .


  • AIML London branch founded by Syed Ameer Ali.


  • AIML Bengal branch founded in 1909.
  • Minto Morley reforms – also known as Indian Councils Act.
    • Increase the involvement of Indians in the governance of British India.
    • In Minto Morley reforms, Minto was Indian Viceroy and Morley was state secretary for India.
    • The most important change brought about by Minto Morley Reforms (in 1909) was Separate Electorate


  • Partition of Bengal annulled by Lord Hoarding
  • Maulana Muhammad Ali Johar issued Comrade English newspaper from Culcata on 14th January 1911


  • “Al-Halal” Urdu newspaper was issued by Maulana Abu-Kalam-Azad in July 1912.


  • Quaid joined AIML on request of M Ali Johar.
  • Quaid-e-Azam remained member of both Muslim League and Congress for 7 years (1913 to 1920)
  • Sir Agha Khan remained president of AIML till 1913. 2nd President of AIML was Sir Ali Mohammad Khan when Agha Khan III resigned in 1913
  • Muslim League demanded self rule principle in 1913.
  • Kaanpur mosque tragedy (Muslims protesting against a demolished mosque were killed by police)
  • Nawab Khan Bahadur Sahibzada SirAbdul Qayyum Khan founded Islamia College Peshawar in 1913
    • He also helped Sir Henry Mortimer Durand during his negotiation of the Durand Line agreement with Afghanistan in 1893.
    • Qayyum Khan became the first Chief Minister of the North-West Frontier Province on 1st April 1937


  • Hindu Mahasabha (a political party) founded in India to protect the rights of the Hindu community in British India by Madan Mohan Malaviya


  • Jinnah was the architect of Lucknow Pact (separate electorates, provincial autonomy, 1/3rd share of Muslims in central government, safeguards in legislation for Muslims)
  • Qaid e Azam met M.K Gandhi 1st time in 1916 in Lucknow
  • After Lucknow Pact, Quaid was titled ‘the ambassador of hindu-muslim unity’ by Mrs. Sarojini Naidu


  • Sitara-e-Subho was launched by Zafer Ali Khan in 1917.
  • In 1917 Kheiri Brothers suggested a plan of partition of India in conference of the Socialist International held in Stockholm


  • Rowlatt Act was passed by Sir Sydney Rowlatt, for indefinitely extending the emergency measures of preventive indefinite detention, incarceration without trial and judicial review
  • The subjects were divided into central and provincial by the Act of 1919
  • Montague-Chelmsford reforms/ law introduced to form self-governing institutions in 1919 (Report of Rowlatt Committee was published in 1918)
  • Dyarchy was scrapped in 1919 Reforms
  • Jalianwala Bagh massacre by General Reginald Dyer in Amritsar, Punjab, on 13th Apr 1919. Hunter Commission
  • All India Central Khilafat Committee was formed on 23rd Sep 1919 by Johar brothers.
    • Non-cooperation Movement was started during the days of Khilafat Movement.
    • Maulana Azad and Maulana Abdul Bari issued the Fatwa in favour of Khilafat Movement.
    • Gandhi announced the end of Khilafat Movement
    • Shuddi & Sangathan started at end of Khilafat movement. Sangathan was launched by Pandit Malavia


  • Jamia Millia Islamia established by Muhammad Ali Johar
  • Gandhi selected as president of Home Rule Movement, started by Annie Besant and Bal Ganga Dhar Tilak on 3rd Sep 1916 (Annie Besant toured India and dedicated her life on India’s independence, and became the first women president of Indian national congress)
  • Migration Movement (1920) 1800 Muslims migrated.
  • Khilafat Delegation met Lord Chelmsford in 1920 under Dr. Ahamad Insari.
  • Jinnah left Congress in 1920 ( left imperial legislative 1919)
  • Jinnah resigned from congress during Nagpur session in 1920


  • Moplah Rebellion in Malabar district in Kerala. The Moplah Muslim peasants attacked the Hindu landlords and the British government officials. British army was called in to suppress the agitation. Thousands were killed. A number of Moplahs suffocated in a railway wagon whilst being transported to prison in Wagon Tragedy.
  • Third Afghan War, Afghanistan gained its independence in 1921under the leadership of Aman ul Allah. Afghanistan is separated from Central Asia by Oxus River


  • Mohenjodaro discovered by Rakhaldas Bandyopadhyay (also known as R D Banerji)
    • “Mohenjo-daro” (Mound of the Dead) is an archeological site in the Larkana District of Sindh, Pakistan in the Indus River Valley, around 28 km (17 miles) from Larkana. It was discovered in 1922 by RD Banerji (Rakhaldas Bandyopadhyay). A bronze statuette dubbed the “Dancing Girl”, 4,500 years old, was found in Mohenjodaro in 1926.
    • S. John Marshal gave the order of Moen JoDaro digging in 1922
  • Gandhi started Non-Cooperation Movement
  • Tragedy of Chora Churi (police killed protestors of non-cooperation movement)


  • Swami Shraddhanand, follower of Arya Samaj, started Shuddhi and Sangathan
  • Shuddhi and Sangthan movements were started at the end of Tehrik e Khilafat
  • Treaty of Lausanne, (1923), final treaty concluding World War I. The treaty recognized the boundaries of the modern state of Turkey. Turkey made no claim to its former Arab provinces and recognized British possession of Cyprus and Italian possession of the Dodecanese.


  • Khilafat was abolished by Mustafa Kamal Pasha in 1924


  • Keshav Baliram Hedgewar, also known as “Doctorji” founded the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh in Nagpur. Madhav Sadashiv Golwalkar was the second Sarsanghchalak of the RSS. The RSS heads the Sangh Parivar, which include the political party Bharatiya Janata Party, a religious wing, a student wing, a worker’s union, and a militant wing Bajrang Dal.


  • Delhi proposals to break the ice and to bridge the gulf between the Muslims League and Congress so that they could present common demands before the British
  • Simon commission – a group of 7 MPs from Britain who was sent to India to study constitutional reforms and make recommendations to the government. Led by Sir John Simon.
  • Sir Shafi was the Muslim League leader who opposed Jinnah’s decision to boycott the Simon Commission of 1927
  • On the arrival Simon Commission Muslim League was Split into two groups one was led by Sir Muhammad Shafee and the other was led by Quaid e Azam.
  • Stephen Walsh was the member of Simon Commission who resigned and was replaced by another member


  • Nehru Report (joint electorate, no provincial autonomy)
    • Nehru Report was supported by Muslim newspaper Zamindar. Maulana Zafar Ali Khan was the chief editor of “Zamindar”
  • Nehru Report was an answer to the challenge given by Lord Birkenhead
  • Nehru Report accepted the following demand a separate province for North-West Frontier and Sindh


  • Quaid e Azam presented his 14 points on 28th Mar 1929 in Delhi


  • Simon Commission submitted its report
  • Allahabad Address by Iqbal
  • Kashmiris started freedom movement against Dogra rule
  • First round table conference in London where all parties were present except Congress.
  • Federal form of Government for India was approved by British in First Round Table Conference
    • Idea of Round Table Conferences was given by Lord Irwin in 1929.
    • “Ramzay Maccdonald” was the PM of England who presided over the all round table conferences of 1930- 32, these all conferences were held in London.


  • Gandhi-Irwin pactto withdraw all ordinances and end prosecutions
  • Quaid-e-Azam went into self-exile in London in 1931
  • Khaksar Movement was launched by Inayat Ullah Mashraqi in 1931
  • Second round table conference. Gandhi participated. Key issues for discussion were Federation and minorities in the Sub-Continent


  • Third round table conference
  • Independant Party was launched by Hasrat Mohani in 1932
  • Unity Conference was held in 1932 at Allabad.
  • Pona Pact was signed on 25 September 1932. Ambidkar and Gandhi were the signatories of Pona Pact
  • Communal award was published in 1932


  • Rahmat Ali suggested name of Pakistan in ‘Now or Never: Are we to live or perish forever’ on 28th Jan 1933 in London. Rehmat Ali was born in 1893 in a village Mohar district Hoshiyarpur (East Punjab). He died at the age of 58 in 1951 and was buried in Cambridge University London. (Pakistan national movement was founded by Ch. Rahmat Ali.)
  • British Government issued White Paper on Constitutional Proposals in March 1933
  • The recommendation of Round Table Conference was published in 1933


  • Quaid-e-Azam became the permanent president of Muslim League


  • Counsel of secretary of state dissolved in 1935 (started in 1858)
  • Govt of India Act 1935 promulgated on 14th Aug 1935
    • According to Govt of India Act of 1935 Federal Assembly has 375 seats and Counsel of state has 260 seats.
    • According to Govt of India Act of 1935 only 14% of population can cast vote (in Govt of India Act of 1919 only 3% of population).
    • Sindh (that Birtish annexed in 1843) was separated frm Bombay via India Act of 1935.
    • The Government of India Act 1935 was fully enforced in April, 1937.


  • Congress ministries (exclusion of Muslims, replacement of Urdu, Hindi symbols)
  • Organizational problems and opposition by local was the main reason behind Muslim League failure in the Elections of 1937
  • Sir Sikindar Hayat was Chief Minister of Punjab in 1937
  • Nawab Khan Bahadur Sahibzada SirAbdul Qayyum Khan became the first Chief Minister of the North-West Frontier Province on 1st April 1937
    • He founded Islamia College Peshawar in 1913
    • He also helped Sir Henry Mortimer Durand during his negotiation of the Durand Line agreement with Afghanistan in 1893.
  • Sikander-Jinnah Pact in 1937.
  • Fatima Jinnah Joined AIML
  • Wardha Scheme of 1937 headed by Dr. Zakar Hussain.
  • Burma separated from India in 1937 and was made independent in 1947
  • The whole of India Act of 1935 came into operation in provincial part in 1937


  • Allama Iqbal died on 21st Apr 1938
  • Moulana Shoukat Ali died on 28th Nov 1938 and buried at Jamia Mosque Delhi
  • Muhammad Ali Jinnah was awarded the title of the Quaid-i-Azam
  • First Public session was held in Pattna in 1938 headed by Quaid-e-Azam.
  • Raja Syed Mehdi prepared Pirpur report. Peerpur Committee formed in 1938 headed by Raja Muhammad Mehdi. Real name of Raja Sahb of Mehmoodabad was Amir Ahmah Khan. Pirpur Report was prepared to investigate the tyrannies of Congress on Muslims.
  • Manshor edited by Syed Riaz Hussain in 1938 till 1947 under Muslim league.
  • Sindh Muslim League passed a resolution in 1938


  • Day of deliverance on 22nd Dec 1939 on resignation of Congress ministries. Governor’s rule was promulgated. It happened because British declared India to be a belligerent in the Second World War without consulting the Indian people.
  • Sharif Report submitted in 1939 by Bihar Branch. Sharif Report was prepared to investigate the cruelties of Congress in Bihar
  • Muslim League National Guards was set up in 1939
  • Fatima Jinnah joined Muslim League.


  • Pakistan Resolution on 27th annual session of AIML on 23rd March, 1940
    • Pakistan/ Lahore resolution was written by M Zafarullah khan and presented by Molvi AK Fazlul Haq.
    • Had the support of all Muslims
    • Jinnah left the lawyership afterward
    • Gandhi called Pakistan Resolution a Moral wrong
  • Gandhi started Satyagraha movement (meaning; holding to truth, fighting with peace, e.g. bycott)
  • Raja Gopal Acharia was the Congress leader who thought after Lahore Resolution that the partition was unavoidable
  • The British August offer was made in 1940


  • Cripps Mission published its report. It was a failed attempt on 30th March 1942 by the British government to secure full Indian cooperation and support for their efforts in World War II.
    • The main emphasis in Cripps Mission was on Creation of new Dominion
    • Non accession clause was mentioned in Cripps mission
    • Mahatma Gandhi said Cripps Mission was a post-dated cheque of a crashing bank
  • Quit India movement started on 8th Aug 1942
  • Dawn, the Muslim League newspaper was started (founder M. Ali Jinnah)


  • AIML established its first ever govt in Sindh
  • Lord Wavell became Viceroy


  • Gandhi-Jinnah talks failed due to two nation theory


  • Simla Delegation met Lord Wavell. A meeting between the Viceroy of India Lord Wavell and the major political leaders of British India at Simla for self-rule of India.
    • In 1945, Lord Wavell proposed the formation of a temporary government consisting of the political parties of United India.
    • Wavell plan was made in 1945 (Parity was the issue in Wavel Plan)
  • Liaqat-Desai pact to get out of political impasse
  • Sapru proposals were offered in 1945
  • In 1945, Labour Party came to power.


  • Elections held.
  • In 1946, Quaid decided to join Interim government in India.
    • 5 members were nominated by Muslim League for the Interim-Government in 1946
    • In interim government Muslim League got portfolis of Finance & Liaquat Ali was Finance Minister. Liaqat Ali Khan Presented poor mans budget
    • Jogindar Nath Mandal was the non-Muslim member who became a minister in interim government on ML behalf
  • Election to the First Constituent Assembly of Pakistan took place in 1946
  • Liaquat Desai pact was concluded in 1946.
  • Cabinet Mission – Lord Pathic Lawrence (Sec of State for India), Sir Stafford Cripps (The President of the Board of Trade), A V Alexandar, announced their plan on 16th May 1946
    • It was the last effort to preserve unity of empire; suggested division into 3 autonomous zones, with center having foreign affairs, defence, communications. League first accepted then rejected after Nehru hinted Congress could change it at whim
    • The Cabinet Mission members were parleyed with four Muslim members
    • In the Cabinet Mission, provinces were divided into three sections
    • Quaid e Azam, for the continuation of Cabinet mission, demanded five portfolios
    • In Cabinet Mission plan total portfolios were Sixteen
    • Congress was awarded six portfolios
    • Five portfolios were given to Muslim League
    • Three portfolios were reserved for minorities
  • Gandhi renounced membership from Congress
  • Jamilla was the first Muslim girl who hoisted Muslim League flag on the Punjab Secretariat, Lahore (1946).
  • Direct Action resolution was passed in July 1946


  • Mountbatten came to India in March 1947 (replacing Lord Wavell). Mountbatten was an officer in British Navy. The last viceroy of united India was Lord Mount Batten
    • The only Indian on the Viceroy lord Mountbatten staff was VP Menon
    • VP Menon prepared the final draft of the transfer of Power
    • Lady Mountbatten is said to be the close friend of Nehru
    • Mountbatten wanted to become the joint Governor General of India and Pakistan
  • Shahi Jirga decided, at the time of partition, the fate of Baluchistan
  • Referendum was used to decide the fate of NWFP
  • Partition Plan announced on 3rd June 1947 (self-determination/ referenda in NWFP and Sylhet, division of 3 provinces in just 72 days)
  • Pakistan Fund was setup by Quaid in June 1947
  • Sindh assembly passed the resolution for the creation of Pakistan firstly on 26th June 1947.
  • Constituent Assembly approves Pakistan’s design on 8th July 1947
  • British parliament passed Indian Independence Bill on 18th July 1947 (was enforced on 15th August 1947)
  • Pakistan’s first Constituent Assembly constituted on 20th July 1947. Total 69 members, later increased to 79 with one female
  • Quaid-e-Azam addressed the Constituent Assembly for the first time on 11th Aug 1947
  • The Chief Minister of NWFP refused to salute the Pakistani flag in 1947.
  • Pakistan was founded on 14th Aug 1947

Timeline of complete History of Pakistan/ subcontinent From 1857 to 1947 with summary/ notes

Read More

Timeline I: History of Pakistan From 712 to 1857

Timeline II: History of Pakistan From 1857 to 1947

Timeline III: History of Pakistan From 1947 to 2020

List of Divisions & Districts of Pakistan (Smallest, Largest, Border, Coastal)

Names & Length of Pakistan Borders With India, Afghanistan, Iran & China

Pakistan Currency – Coins, Bank Notes, History, Currency Rate in Pakistan

The Dams, Reservoirs & Hydroelectric Projects of Pakistan

List of All Amendments to the Constitution of Pakistan

Salient Features of the 18th Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan


Wikipedia, BBC,,, PBS, Marintheatre, Researchgate,,

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