Here’s a detailed timeline of complete history of Pakistan (subcontinent) from 712 AD to 1947 AD, including summary/ notes of all major events.
Timeline: History of Pakistan From 712 to 1857
Muhammad Bin Qasim conquered Debal in 712 AD by defeating Raja Dahir (son of Chuch) of Sindh and 2 years later Multan. (Sindh is known as Bab-ul-Islam)
Mahmud Ghaznavi (son of Subuktigin) defeated Shahi Raja Jayapala of the Hindu Shahi Dynasty of Gandhara and obtained formal recognition of Ghazni’s sovereignty from the Abbassid Khalifah, al-Qadir Billah.
- First to use the title of Sultan.
- Invaded India 17 times. Invaded Somnath in Gujarat on 17th October 1026 A.D.
- Firdausi wrote Shahnama and was also a court poet of Mahmud of Ghazni.
- Mahmud Ghaznavi is described as “the first pioneer and path-finder for Islam in this country” by Lane Poole.
- Abu Raihan Al-Biruni joined the court of Mahmood in in 1017
Muhammad Ghori (Turk-Afghan from Ghor) conquered Ghazni.
- Won Second Battle of Tarain from Prithvi Raj Chohan in 1192. First 1191.
- Nasir-ud-Din Qubacha was a lieutenant of Muhammad Ghouri and served as Governor of Multan
[Slave/ Mamluk/ Ghulam Dynasty – 84 years]
Qutb ud din Aibak (he built the Qutub Minar and the Quwwat Al Islam mosque in Delhi, both of which were completed by Iltumish. His capital was Delhi, he ruled from 1206 to 1210 AD, and died while playing Polo in Lahore)
- The first independent ruler of Muslim India was Qutub uddin Aibak.
Qutb’s son Aram Shah (killed by Iltumish)
Shams ud din Iltumish (Qutb’s son-in-law)
- Iltumish was the first sovereign ruler of the Sultanate of Delhi.The first Sultan of Delhi to issue regular currency and declared Delhi as the capital of his empir. The Chalisa or the Group of Forty was the nick name of the forty leading slave officers of Iltumish
- Reigned for the longest period in the Slave dynasty
Rukn ud din Firuz, son of Iltumish
Razia Sultana, daughter of Iltumish
- Her father preferred her as his successor over his twenty sons
After few more Ghiyas ud din Balban, ex-slave, son-in-law of Iltutmish
- The Sultan Balban called himself Naib-e-Khuda or Deputy of the God.The Diwan-e-Arz or the department of military affairs was created by Balban.
- Balban was son of a Turkish noble of the Ilbari tribe. He was captured by the Mongols and sold in Baghdad to Khawaja Jamal-ud-din Basri. Later in 1232 he was taken to Dehli and sold to Iltutmish.
Balban’s grandson Muiz ud din Qaiqabad
[The Khilji Dynasty – 30 years]
Jalal ud din Firuz Khilji (1290-1296) – 6 years
- Arabic coinage was first introduced in Indian by Jalal-ud-Din Firuz
Ala ud din Khilji (1296-1316) (nephew and son-in-law of Jalal and killed him) – 20 years
- Alauddin’s reign is marked by innovative administrative and revenue reforms, market control regulations and a whirlwind period of conquests. It is considered the golden period of the Khilji rule.
- Alai Darwaza was the structure constructed by Ala-ud-Din Khilji near Qutb Minar in 1311 A.D.
- The maximum number of Mongol invasions took place during the reign of Ala-ud-Din Khilji.
Qutb ud din Mubarak Shah (1316-1320) – 4 years
[The Tughlaq Dynasty – 93 years]
Ghiyas ud din Tughluq (1st Tuglaq sultan, real name Malik Ghazi)
Muhammad bin Taghluq (2nd Tuglaq sultan, real name Jauna Khan)
- Ibn-e-Batota was a famous Moraco Traveler who stayed in the court of Muhammad bin Taghluq for several years. He traveled over the quarter part of the world from China to India.
- Mohammad bin Tughlaq introduced tokens currency firstly
- His reign is said to mark the highest point of territorial expansion of the Sultanate
Firuz Shah Tughluq
- Constructed five canals to remove scarcity of water
Nasir-ud-Din-Mahmud was the last ruler of the Tughlaq dynasty
The Sayyid/ Saddat Dynasty (founded by Khizar Khan) (37 years)
The Lodhi Dynasty (founded by Bahlul Lodhi) (75 years)
First battle of Paniput b/w Babur and Delhi Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi in 1526 AD
Vasco-da Gama, a Portugese navigator, discovered first of all a direct route to India in 1498. During the Mughal period, Portuguese traders first came to India
Babar (real name Zahir Uddin Muhammad) – 4 years
- Built Bala Hisar fort (meaning, “elevated or high fort”) in Peshawar. Buried in Kabul
- “Baburnama” (alternatively known as Tuzk-e Babri) is the name given to the memoirs of Babur (1483-1530), founder of the Mughal Empire and a great-great-great-grandson of Timur. It is an autobiographical work, originally written in the Chagatai language
Humayun (real name Nasir Uddin Baig Muhammad) – 9+1 years
Built Purana Qila in the inner citadel of the city of Dina-Panah. Buried in Delhi
Gulbaden Begum was the author of “Hamayun Nama” and sister of Mughal King Hamayun.
Sher Shah Suri (real name Fareed Khan) – 16 years
Sher Shah founded Suri Empire in Sasaram, India, now Bihar
Introduced rupee currency and land revenue system. Built GT Road (Imperial highway), Rohtas Fort (by Todar Mall as defence against Gakhars). Buried in Sasaram, Bihar, India
Humayun returned to power and died
Second battle of Paniput b/w Bairam/ Akbar and Samrat Hemu in 1556
Akbar (real name Jalal Uddin Muhammad, title Abu al Fatah) – 49 years
- Born in Umar Kot. Bairam Khan was regent. Buried Agra, UP
- Contemporary of Queen Elizabeth 1
- Built Lahore fort in 1560, Agra fort, and Allahabad fort (largest) in Allahabad, UP, and Buland Darwaza at Fatehpur Sikri to commemorate his conquest of Gujrat
- Mullah Do Piazza was a Akbar’s chief advisor and one of Navratnas
- Tan Sen was a famous musician of Akbar’s time. He had introduced a number of Rags in the Indian music industry.
- Todar Mal was an advisor/wazir of great Mughal King Akbar. He introduced and implemented the Revenue system in the subcontinent successfully
- Birbal was one of the Nau Ratan of Akbar
- “Ain-e-Akbari” is the renowned work of Abul Fazal about the government of Akbar the Great. Abul al Fazl was a son of Sheikh Mubarak. He was one of the Nau Ratans of Akbar the Great. He wrote “AkbarNama”the official history of Akbar’s reign in three volumes, (the third volume is known as the Ain-iAkbari). He was also the brother of Faizi, the poet laureate of emperor Akbar.
- Din-e-Elahi was a new religion invented in 1582 by Akbar to create tolerance and love among people of India. Akbar prohibited the practice of Sati.
- Infallibility Decree was a document signed by Akbar in 1597, which authorized him to act as the supreme arbitrator in civil and ecclesiastical affairs.
Sheikh Ahmed Sirhandi/ Mujadid Alf Sani (real name Badruddin) born at Sirhind in 1564 and died in 1626
East India Company founded by John Watts (Mayor of London) in London on 31st Dec 1600. He also founded Virginia Company.
Jehangir (real name Mirza Nur Uddin Baig Muhammad Khan Salim)
- Noor Jahan (real name Mahr-un-Nisa) was beloved Queen of Jahangir
- Built Hiran Minar (hunting ground). Buried in Lahore.
During Jehangir’s reign Sir Thomas Roe and Captain Hawkins visited Moghul court to secure commercial privileges
Shah Jehan (real name Shahab Uddin Muhammad Khurram) – 30 years
- Built Red/ Delhi Fort (it served as the capital of the Mughals until 1857), Peacock Throne (Takht e Taoos in Delhi Fort), Jamia Masjid Delhi, Agra Fort, Moti Masjid (inside Agra Fort), Jamia Masjid Agra, Taj Mahal Agra (1632-1653, by Architect Ustad Isa)
- Wazir Khan Mosque in Lahore (built by Hakim Shaikh Ilm-ud-din Ansari who was a court physician of Shah Jahan and governor of Lahore), Sheesh Mahal and Naulakha Pavilion in Lahore Fort, Shalimar Gardens in Lahore in 1642, Moti Masjid in Lahore Fort, Mahabat Khan Mosque in Peshawar (named after the Mughal governor of Peshawar Nawab Mohabbat Khan, Mahabat khan Mosque was destroyed by fire), Shah Jahan Mosque in Thattha, Sindh, Nishat Bagh in Sirinagar,
- Buried in Taj Mahal, Agra
Aurangzeb (real name Muhi Uddin Muhammad)– 49 years
- Badshahi Mosque (‘King’s Mosque) was built by Aurangzeb Alamgir at Lahore in 1674. Buried in Khaldabad, India
- Succeeded by Bahadur Shah I
French East India Company was established in 1664
Shah Waliullah (Qutbuddin) was born in 1703 and died in 1762. Real name was Ahmed and historical name was Azimuddin
- He translated Quran into Persian and wrote Hujat ul Baligha, Khilafat al Khulafa, Fyuz-i-Harmain Sharifan
- His sons Shah Rafi ud din and Shah Abdul Qadir translated Quran into Urdu.
Furrukhsiyar granted a free hand to the British East India Company granting them duty free trading rights for Bengal, and confirmed their position in India
Muhammad Shah Rangila suffered invasion of Nadir Shah of Persia/ Iran
Lord Clive defeated Nawab of Bengal Siraj ud daula and his French allies in battle of Plassey (due to treason of Nawab’s C-in-C Mir Jafar Ali Khan
Third battle of Paniput b/w Ahmed Shah Abdali (King of Kabul/ Afghans) and Marhattas
Shah Alam II was an ally of Mir Qasim in the Battle of Buxar in 1764.
Shah Alam II (who suffered the invasion of Ahmed-Shah-Abdali) granted the ‘Nizami’ of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa to the BEIC in 1765. He later formally accepted the protection of the BEIC in 1803.
Haji Shariat Ullah born. He started Faraizi movement in Bengal to revert to fundamentals of Islam
Tipu Sultan (real name Fateh Ali) killed in Sirangapatam near city of Mysore (now in state of Karnatakta) due to betrayal by cabinet minister Mir Sadiq
“Fort William College” was established at Calcutta by Governor General of India.
Syed Ahmed Khan born on 17th Oct 1817 in Delhi (and died on 27th Mar 1898 in Aligarh)
Brahmo Samaj – a monotheistic reformist movement started in Calcutta by Raja Ram Mohan Roy
Syed Ahmed of Rai Brelli was the founder of Jehad Tehrik against Sikhs. He was martyred at Balakot (NWFP) in 1831.
Urdu declared as official language in 1832.
English was made official language of India. English education was first initiated in Bengal in 1835
Jamrood Fort (Peshawar) was built by General Hari Singh Nalwa in 1836
British occupied Balochistan in 1839.
Sindh was annexed by Birtish in 1843 and was separated from Bombay in 1935 vide India Act 1935
State of Kashmir was purchased by Ghulab Singh for Rs.7.5 million via the Treaty of Amritsar on 16th March 1846, signed between the East India Company and Maharaja Gulab Singh
BEIC occupied Punjab
War of Independence started on 10th May, 1857 at Meerut
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