Here’s a list of all al three kinds of mineral resources found in Pakistan (metallic minerals, non-metallic minerals, and mineral fuel energy – oil, gas, coal reserves of Pakistan) including their location, uses, and significance.
Metallic Mineral Resources of Pakistan
Uses of Copper
- Copper is used largely in the electrical industry as it is one of the best conductors.
- It is made into cables, wires and many other components connected with the generation of power and electrical equipment.
- It is also very useful for making cooking pots as it heats up very quickly.
- Many countries use a mixture of copper and other metals for making coins.
- It is mixed with tin to make much harder metal called bronze.
Copper Deposits in Pakistan are found in:
- Balochistan: Chaghi, Sandak, Reko-diq, Qalat, Lasbela and Zhob
- KPK: Dir, Chitral and Hazara
- Chaghi & Lasbela have the most potential
Iron Ore (Iron)
Uses of Iron
- Iron ore is the source of primary iron for the world’s iron and steel industries.
- It is essential for the production of steel, which in turn is essential to maintain a strong industrial base.
- Iron is needed in making machines, equipments, tools, other utensils used in our modern life and as construction materials.
Iron Ore Deposits in Pakistan are found in:
- Punjab: Kalabagh
- KPK: Chitral, Kohat
- Balochistan: Chaghi
- Production of iron ore in Pakistan started in 1957
Uses of Chromium
- Chromium is used in electroplating, printing, dyeing, and tanning.
- It’s mainly used to make metal corrosion inhibitors.
Chromite (Chromium) Deposits in Pakistan are found in:
- Balochistan: Muslim Bagh, Zhob, Chaghi and Kharan
- KPK: Malakand and Mohmand Agency
Uses of Lead
- Lead is used to make motor car batteries.
- It is also used in building, X-ray equipment and for making bullets.
Lead Deposits in Pakistan are found in:
- Balochistan: Khuzdar, Lasbela and Quetta districts
- KPK: Chitral, Swat and Mardan
- Punjab: Sargodha district
- Lasbela and Khuzdar have the most potential
Uses of Zinc
- Zinc is also used in electroplating of metals to prevent corrosion.
- It is also used in making torch batteries and is an ingredient in many medicines too.
Zinc Deposits in Pakistan are found in:
- Balochistan: Khuzdar and Lasbela districts
Uses of Gold
- Gold is the best conductor of all metals in the world and will never rust.
- It is used in scientific equipment, especially for making important connections in computers and other electronic equipment.
- Gold is widely used in electronic equipment in satellites as it will not tarnish.
- It is also used for making jewellery.
Gold Deposits in Pakistan are found in:
- RekoDiq mine in Chaghi, Balochistan, holds about 5.9 billion tonnes of ore, making it the world’s fifth largest deposit of gold and copper.
- RekoDiq, which means sandy peak is an ancient volcano, and has a string of gold mines, copper mines and shale gas reserves.
Uses of Aluminum
- Aluminum is used in kitchen utensils, cans, foils, aeroplane parts, and window frames.
Aluminum Deposits in Pakistan are found in:
- AJK: Muzaffarabad and Kotli
- Balochistan: Loralai District
- Punjab: Salt Range
Non-Metallic Minerals Found in Pakistan
Rock Salt (Halite)
Extensive reserves of Rock salt in Pakistan are found in 300-km Salt Range of Khewra, district Jhelum in Punjab. In addition to the salt deposits, mined from ancient times, the Salt Range contains coal, gypsum, and other minerals.
Other reserves are in Kalabagh (District Mianwali), Warcha (District Khushab) and Bahadurkhail (District Karak).
Sea salt is also a small source of common salt for industrial use in Pakistan. It is produced at Karachi coast by trapping sea water in artificially formed ponds where the sea water evaporates with the help of sun.
Most of the gypsum in Pakistan is found in salt range areas of Khewra, Dandot, Dauwdkhel, and Qadirabad. There are also some mines of gypsum in Rohri, Kohat, Dera Ghazi Khan, Loralai, and Sibbi.
Limestone (calcite) reserves are found in Pakistan in Attock, Rawalpindi, Jhelum, Chakwal, and DGK Districts. It’s found in abundance in very pure form in Kala Chitta Range of Attock.
The Mullagori deposits in the Khyber Agency are renowned for their high quality. White marble is also found at Swabi in the Mardan District and in Swat.
Aside from white, marble in Pakistan is found in number of colors, including grey, yellow and brown. Onyx marble is found in the Chaghi area in Balochistan and is thought to be the result of the deposition of hot springs.
Deposits of granite are found in Gilgit, Dir, Chitral, Swabi, Kohistan, Nagarparker, Chaghi, Mansehra, Malakand and Swat.
However, Nagarparkar (Sindh) and Mansehra (KPK) are only known sources of workable Granite in Pakistan.
Mineral Fuel (Coil, Oil, Natural Gas) Reserves of Pakistan
All coal reserves in Pakistan are of poor-quality lignite and sub-bituminous coal. The mining of coal in this region started in 1887.
Major coal-producing regions in Pakistan are as follows:
- Sindh: Lower Sindh coalfields (96% coal of Pakistan is here, in Jhimpir, Lakhra, Thatta and Thar)
- Punjab: Salt Range (Dandot, Paddh) and Makarwal coalfields (Makarwal has somewhat better coal)
- Balochistan: Quetta coalfields (Khost, Sharag, Digari, Sherin, Aab, Macch, Bolan and Harnai)
- KPK: Some reserves in Hangu
The total natural gas reserves of Pakistan are estimated about 31 trillion cubic feet. Natural gas reserves of Paksitan are found in:
- Sui Balochistan (6% of total)
- Khairpur, Mazrani, Sari, Kandhlot and Sarang in Sindh
- Dhodhak, Pirkoh, Dhallian and Mial in Punjab
Pothohar Plateau in Pakistan is an ancient area for the production of mineral oil where oil wells are located in Balkasar, Khor, Dhallian, Joyamir, Manwal, Tut, Kot Sarang, Mial, Aadhi and Qazian.
In lower Sindh, important areas of oil production are Khaskheli, Kunar, TandoAllahyar and Zamzama.